Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Irregular verbs and adjectives (불규칙동사와 형용사)

Korean predicates are either regular or irregular. The regularity of a predicate depends on whether the stem of the predicate is subject to variation. The predicates whose stem do not change, regardless of the sound of the following suffix, are called regular predicates. On the other hand, those predicates whose stems are subject to variation depending on the sound of the following suffix are called irregular predicates. This unit introduces seven irregular predicates.

* Irregular verbs

ㄷ-irregular

Some verbs whose stem end with ㄷ are irregular. For instance, consider the verb 묻다. ㄷ of the stem 묻 changes to ㄹ when followed by a suffix that begins with a vowel, as shown below.


Here are more examples of ㄷ-irregulars.


Meanwhile, not all verbs that end with ㄷ are irregular. The following are examples of regular predicates.


Notice that these ㄷ-ending verbs conjugate regularly. The stems of these regular predicates do not undergo any change whether the ensuing suffix begins with a vowel or a consonant.

ㅂ-irregular

The ㅂ-irregular predicates are subject to the following variation. ㅂ changes to either 우 or 오(for a few predicates), when the ensuing suffix begins with a vowel. For instance, consider how 춥다(cold) is conjugated. 춥 + 어요 = 추우 + 어요 = 추워요. Here are more examples.


Not all predicates that end with ㅂ are irregular. The followings are regular ㅂ-ending predicates.


ㅅ-irregular

Some verbs that end with ㅅ are subject to the following irregular conjugation. ㅅ of the stem gets deleted when followed by a suffix that begins with a vowel. Examples of ㅅ-irregular verbs are as follows.


Not all predicates that end with ㅅ are irregular. The following are regular ㅅ-ending predicates.

ㅎ-irregular

Some predicates that end with ㅎ are subject to the following irregular conjugation. ㅎ of the stem drops out when followed by a suffix that begins with a vowel. A number of color-related adjectives as well as demonstratives fall into this group of irregular predicates, as shown below.


Regular ㅎ-ending predicates include the following.


르-irregular

Most Korean predicates that end with 르 conjugate irregularly. 르 of the stem drops out and a consonant ㄹ is added, when followed by a suffix that begins either 어 or 아. For instance, consider the verb 가르다(divide). Notice that 르 of the stem is deleted but a consonant ㄹ is inserted, when followed by polite speech level ending -아요.


Here are more examples.


It must be noted that the irregular conjugation of 르-irregular happens only after two vowels, 어 and 아, but not with other vowels.


Not all predicates that end with 르 are subject to this irregular conjugation. The following few 르-ending predicates are regular.


ㄹ-irregular

All Korean predicates that end in ㄹ are subject to the following irregular conjugation. ㄹ drops out when the following suffix begins with one of ㄴ, ㅂ and ㅅ.

 

으-irregular

All Korean predicates that ends with the vowel 으 are subject to the following irregular conjugation. the vowel 으 of the stem drops out when the following suffix begins with a vowel.


* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Beginners
Predicates of Sentences
Endings of Sentences
The Deferential Speech Level
The Polite Speech Level
Negation (부정문)

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